LINGUIST List 11.1177

Tue May 23 2000

Qs: Reference "Effectum", Spatial Preposition "by"

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  • Toshiyuki Kumashiro, Reference to "Effectum"
  • Markus J�ger, Spatial Preposition "by"

    Message 1: Reference to "Effectum"

    Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 03:45:58 +0900
    From: Toshiyuki Kumashiro <>
    Subject: Reference to "Effectum"


    I believe it is Lyons who used the term "effectum" to describe the direct object of a verb of creation such as "to make", which is not "affected" by the action, but "effected" into existence. Can anyone tell me in which work he introduced the term?


    Toshiyuki Kumashiro. Keio University

    Message 2: Spatial Preposition "by"

    Date: Tue, 23 May 2000 11:29:09 +0200
    From: Markus J�ger <>
    Subject: Spatial Preposition "by"

    I am currently working on my master's thesis which will be an analysis of the semantics of the English spatial preposition "by" against a cognitive background. This is going to involve the search for a single underlying meaning of all the spatial, temporal and abstract metaphorical extensions of this preposition. Moreover, I hope to find clues to establishing a sort of sense chain to link all the extensional meanings of "by" to each other on the basis of image schematic representations and the metaphors employed.

    Although I have found thorough semantic analyses of English prepositions such as "over", I haven't found any in-depth analyses of "by" - apart from a few short articles by Rene Dirven, for example.

    I would be glad to hear from anyone who can give me some information on this topic or who would like to give me a few hints. If there are any brand-new publications I haven't heard of in Austria yet - please e-mail me!

    Thanks, Markus J�ger, Vienna University